Kazakh Zerno - News and analysis of cereals

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Kazakhstan: What will the Ministry of Agriculture ‘milk’ from the AIC program? PDF Print E-mail
Wednesday, 25 January 2017 17:13

2016 is nearing the end of 2016, the results of which was supposed to export from Kazakhstan 60 thousand. Tons of beef. However, the main objective of the project of development of export potential of cattle for meat with a bang failed. You can put this failure (costing the country's budget in the tens of billions of tenge) accused the former head of the Ministry of Agriculture Asylzhanu Mamytbekov.

But first, many of his team still quietly sit in their offices in Astana, and secondly, the new concept of the state program of development of agro-industrial complex of Kazakhstan on 2017 - 2021 years "searchlights" looks like nothing is realistic failed.

Bordering on fantasy

The presentation of the Concept of RK Ministry of Agriculture provides data that even the domestic market of the country is now provided only beef by 98%. Own production in the country by the end of 2015 amounted to 417 thousand еons. At the same time it imported a further 4% of the needs (16.5 thous. Tons) and exported only 2% of the meat produced (8.3 ths. Tons).

What does the concept of the new country, the state program of development of agrarian and industrial complex of Kazakhstan, presented in November 2016?

The scope of the plans of the imagination: the overall efficiency of agricultural livestock department promises in five years to increase ... 58%! If we break this figure for five years, it turns out that the growth of a domestic animal should be 11.6% per year! That is so boldly, not being exchanged for detail. Let us remember that the growth of the livestock industry in the five years of implementation of the project on cattle meat export potential increase (2011- 2015) was 10.4% (according to the Kazakh Statistics Committee). That is, the average increase was 2% per year. And it is - in good economic times, when the loans and subsidies to the industry flowed freely, states the facts correspondent of the publication "".

So, how the best minds of the Ministry of Agriculture is now calculated in the current difficult conditions, make a sudden increase in livestock production 5.5 times faster?

Fresh blood

Let us all on the same beef. Its production in 2021 should increase from the current 417 thousand. Tonnes (2015) to 537 thousand еons. That is scheduled to increase to 120 thousand tons.

Recall that in 2011, beef production amounted to 392.8 thousand. Tonnes. So, for five years, an increase of only 24 thousand tons. And that - in view of the fact that in the framework of the project to improve the export potential of the republic imported thousands of head of cattle of foreign selection purchased for big money. So, in 2011 - 5321 head, and in 2012 - 10 766 heads, which took an estimated $ 92 million (approximately US $ 5,700 per head of cattle!).

It is clear that given the current economic realities, the country that kind of money for the purchase overseas cows waste cannot. How in the absence of feeding fresh blood from thoroughbred bulls Ministry of Agriculture is now going to accelerate the development of meat production in the five-fold compared with the same pace?

And all well: in the concept of the state program of development of agro-industrial complex of Kazakhstan on 2017 - 2021 years, a key role is given to all the same characteristics of the breed improvement of farm animals and poultry.And the most ambitious task is placed just on the cattle: here the proportion of thoroughbred herd is expected to grow more than double from the current 10% to 21%.

The emphasis on this area of work is clear: in 2014 the agency «RFCA Ratings» has prepared a report entitled "Analysis of the livestock industry of Kazakhstan", in which the main problem of Kazakhstan's livestock called low productivity of livestock. According to the data provided in the study, the average weight of a living head of cattle in the US is 570 kg, Kazakhstan - 314 kg. Milk yield per 1 cow in the United States - 8.6 tons per year in Kazakhstan - 2.2 tons. In addition, at the rate of daily gain of calves for fattening in the amount of 1.5 - 2 kg, in Kazakhstan, average daily gain was 400 grams.

It is clear that these realities translate into lack of competitiveness of Kazakhstan's livestock production, because at the same cost for the maintenance of livestock, returns at times less than in countries with high development industry.

One of the main reasons for the low productivity of livestock in Kazakhstan, along with the lack of high-quality feed and substandard prison conditions, experts have called the low proportion of breeding stock.

Artificial way out

Anuarbek Seytmuratov, director of the Republican Chamber of the Kazakh white-headed breed, says that the proportion of pedigree cattle herd in Kazakhstan is still growing. If in 2010, before the start of the project to enhance the export potential of Kazakhstan's meat cattle, purebred cattle amounted to only 2% of the total herd of the country, following the results of 2014 the share reached 5.7%.

Republican House of the Kazakh white-headed breed combines 288 breeding farms throughout the country. This breed is most common in the country, occupying a share of 65% of the total herd of beef cattle. Also in Kazakhstan grown purebred cattle of meat breeds like Hereford, Angus, auliekolskaya.

At the same time, the quality of the country population is not evenly distributed. For example, according to the management of agriculture of the Karaganda region, at the beginning of the year in the region, there were 475.6 thousand. Cattle. Of this amount, breeding animals accounted for only 14.2 thousand. Goals (3%).

Returning to the current economic realities, yes, the development project of the export potential of Kazakhstan on improvement of cattle meat breed herds assumed characteristics. And mainly due to imports of purebred steers and breeding stock.

However, this option is not realistic now - because of high prices for bulls. Especially considering the fact that 80% of the country's livestock products provide small farms and private households villagers do not have the means to ensure that every two years to change the bull-producer for every 30 cows.

What is the solution? Experts see it in the wide application of the method of artificial insemination material of quality sires.

For farmers, artificial insemination is advantageous for several reasons. Firstly, we must be changed every two years in order to prevent inbreeding bull. Should one bull at least 300 thousand. Tenge. The same goes for the amount of the year for its maintenance.

At the same dose of bull-producer of the seed is only about 2000 tenge. The benefit is obvious.

Note also that, compared with natural insemination, when using high-value intensity artificial bull-producer cells increases several times. That is, if the free mating load of bull is 300 heads per year, the artificial material it is possible to seed up to 10 thousand cows.

Promising experience

In the artificial insemination has accumulated vast experience, which now can be very useful.

Veteran of the livestock industry of the Karaganda branch Rymhan Seisenbayev more than half a century has given on improving the characteristics of the breed of cattle. In 1964, while still a student Karakaralinskogo zooveterinary college, he was confronted with a new technology at the time of artificial insemination, which began to be used initially for small ruminants.

Seed done with gosplemstantsii from breeding rams edilbaevskoy breed beef. Even the first generation of thoroughbred got bigger and gain weight faster if purebred rams had to be kept a year, so they scored slaughter weight of 25 kg, those it reached in two months. It is easy to imagine how to cut costs and as indicators of increased harvesting of meat.

Since 1972 Rymhanu Seysenbaevu entrusted with the implementation of the new method in the state farms specializing in meat and dairy cattle breeding.

Fully artificial insemination, no bull, worked Karaganda breeding farm in Abai district. Here we have exceeded all norms: the cow gave up to 12 thousand liters of milk per year.. Were champions, who were sent to the Exhibition of Economic Achievements in Moscow - they gave up to 18 thousand liters of milk per year!

As for beef cattle, the bulls of the Kazakh white-headed breed pulled at least 600 kg.

- In the 90s, when the farms were disbanded, buy bulls smallholders was difficult - says Rymhan Seisenbayev. - The more that according to the standards the load on each bull must be in an amount not more than 30 cows. And if the economy 300 heads, no one will spend money on expensive 10 breeding bulls. Exit - only artificial insemination. Then I was working for a company that distributed the seed regions. Of course, somewhere in general abandoned the job. But where attention is paid to it, the results were clear: the offspring was always at least 100 kg more weight than purebred cattle. And it should be much higher.

Hope for the AC

Republican livestock breeding center is located in the village of Akmola region Kosshy. They formed the stock of breeding material in the amount of 15 million. Doses. Moreover, only evaluated sires.

It would seem that everything is available. But indicators of introduction of artificial insemination is low. So, in the Karaganda region in 10 months, and given the villagers realized only about 25 thousand. Dose when the total number of livestock of 475 thous. Heads.

The problem with the introduction of artificial insemination is that for its application must be strictly observed technology. Mainly, to accurately determine the appropriate time for the procedure, when the cow is in the "hunt". Make it could only qualified livestock, which in rural areas is not enough. This is even more difficult given the small-scale production.

Out rural governorates to see the creation of agricultural cooperatives and conduct touring calving within them.

A pilot project in this area in the Karaganda region will become an agricultural cooperative dairy in Nura District. Akim of the region Nikanbay Omarkhan says that the first phase is expected to combine at least 20 farms 12 settlements. They will be assisted in carrying out the artificial insemination of livestock breeding material dairy breed bulls. Thus, by improving the breed characteristics of the herd will be increased milk yields and ensure the stability of AC.

Experience of the agricultural cooperative in Karaganda region will show, among other things, and the prospects for applying the method of artificial insemination to improve the characteristics of the breed (and hence productivity) cattle.

Reference: 1 US dollar = 332.09 tenge

Sergey Buyanov




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